Warping Automobile Disk Brake Rotors Are Preventable

In the aircraft and aerospace industry, the standards required for various components, parts, and specifications are considerably higher. Everything built for the aircraft and aerospace industry is light and strong. It is the “AND” part of that sentence that makes the parts expensive, not the “light” part. Automobile manufacturers today who build high-performance and sophisticated vehicles understand the “light” part, but not necessarily the “strong” part. But what they do understand is how much force can be applied to these parts before they succumb to failure.

Today’s brake rotors (or disk brake system) are built very light with advances in technology such as slotting, cross-drilling, cryo-treating and many other advances to allow the brakes to breathe better and last longer. However despite all this technology that goes into the rotors, they are still not strong enough to withstand a mechanic’s error. How often have you had a car pulsate when applying the brakes? The reason this happens is because the lug nuts on your wheels were not torqued down to specifications set out by the manufacturer. Every mechanic shop you walk into, you can always hear the distinctive sound of the air wrench being used to loosen and tighten parts and lug nuts. These air tools are capable of putting out an immense amount of torque, but that is where the problem starts. The torque setting on these air wrenches are preset to a single setting (usually the strongest), never changed, but used to tighten down everything on your car. BAD!

Today’s modern vehicles are built almost like airplanes and have very acute specifications that must be followed. The most commonly made mistake by mechanics and car owners are to over-tighten the lug nuts on the wheels of their cars. Some even go as far as jumping on the tire wrench to ensure that the lug nuts are “tight” and that the wheels will not “fall off” while driving. However, over tightening your lugs will lead to premature failure of your brake rotors as seen by warping or deformations in the rotor. It may also lead to wheel bolts “snapping” when over-tightening the wheels stretches and weakens the bolt.

It is therefore important to ensure that your lug nuts are tightened to the appropriate specifications and to do that, there are several things you can do. For most vehicles, the lug nuts need to be tightened down to 70-100 ft-lbs using a good quality torque wrench. However, you do not need a torque wrench to tighten your lug nuts correctly.

The approach I have always taken is to tighten the nuts as tightly as can be done with your fingers first. Then taking a tire wrench, tighten the nut without apply much effort until you feel some resistance. Then simply (without jumping on the tire wrench), put your body weight on the wrench until it stops turning. You do not need to jerk your body to ensure that there is more room to tighten. In general, if you follow this practice, you will put about 80-90 ft-lbs of torque onto the lug. Do this consistently for all your wheels to ensure that your brake rotors have maximum life. However, for best results, I still recommend acquiring a quality 1/2″ drive torque wrench, my favorite being the Neiko Pro line that I use religiously for every mechanical work conceivable.

It is a worthwhile investment and they typically range in price from $20-40, which is cheaper than a single brake rotor for your car. The brakes and wheels are the most important components of your car and therefore, requires the most care and attention. Go check your lug nuts today.

Traveling in Mexico: Internet Cafes in Mexico City’s Zona Rosa

INTERNET CAFES IN THE ZONA ROSA

While you're tooling around Mexico, you'll want to stay connected. Mexico City has excellent internet café facilities even for those who Spanish is not the greatest. English is spoken in many internet cafés in the Zona Rosa and Historic District. Here are some of your e-café options.

Café Internet Victal

Address: Hamburgo No. 108 local 101 at the corner of Genova

Phone: 514 – 4161, 672 – 3821

With a going rate of 20 pesos per hour, this is one of the cheapest full-service Internet cafés in the area. Chats, computer games, and office programs (word, Excel, etc.) are also available. The staff is knowledgeable and helpful. The Victal is open from 9am to 9pm Monday through Saturday and is open on Sundays half a day. There are many computer-related services available – if it has to do with computers, they can probably do it or have it. Getting into the place is tricky at first. From the corner of Genova walk down Hamburgo about a quarter of a block. Enter the building through an arcade doorway and go up to the second floor. The entrance will be there but you'll have to look closely for the signs. The only visible signs from the street are above your head at the second story level with no clue for finding the entrance. You may have a short wait to get onto a computer but this place is worth the trouble.

Coffee Net – Zona Rosa

Address: Florencia No. 35 Local E (between Hamburgo and Londres)

Phone: 533 – 0844, 533 – 1760

An Internet café – cafeteria featuring a variety of gourmet sandwiches, salads, gourmet coffes and cappuccinos. The hourly rate is 25 pesos. Services are acceptable quality but a bit costly. Centrally located with good quality but pricey food.

Coffee Mail

Address: Amberes No. 61

A 24 pesos hourly rate internet café with standard fare. Similar in structure and price to Coffee Net but with less selection of sandwiches, coffees and foods. Regular customers typically come in to check or send e-mails. Other services are available but not heavily used.

Café Internet Red 2000

Address: in the Insurgentes metro station plaza

Phone: no phone

After exiting the metro at the Insurgentes station, this Internet café is in the outside plaza surrounding the station entrances. Long distance phone services are available through the internet. Rates are: 15 minutes 8 pesos, 30 minutes 16 pesos, 45 minutes 24 pesos, one hour 30 pesos. Only sodas and packed snacks are available.

Conecte Cafe

Address: Liverpool No. 140 (near Amberes)

Phone: 587 – 6179, 587 – 7737

A very well run internet café with full computer services including scanner, photoshop, translations, printing, Microsoft office and MP3 software available, all at reasonable rates. The internet use rate is 20 pesos per hour but there are only a few computers. Located across from Harmon Hall and Quick Learning building. There is also another Zona Rosa location at Genova No. 1. 71 on the first floor near Londres.

NOTE: There are other Internet cafés around the Zona Rosa area with varyingly higher prices for similar services.

In the Historic District:

LAFOEL Internet Service

Address: Doncelles No. 80 first floor (two blocks from the cathedral)

Phone: 512-3584, 521-2978

Open Monday to Friday from 9 am – 8 pm and Saturdays from 10 am – 5 pm. Rates for services are: 10 pesos for 15 minutes, 20 pesos for 30 minutes and 30 pesos for one hour. Conveniently located near the Zocalo but a bit on the high side for service costs. Okay just to check mail or send a quick message though. They also rent computer equipment. Just be sure to confirm the rates before signing anything or leaving the promises with equipment.

Finally, be sure to check out my other articles in the two continuing series: Teaching English in Mexico and Traveling in Mexico. If you would like more information, have questions or comments, the author can be e-mailed, see below.

Pitlochry Vacations – What To Do When Visiting Pitlochry

Pitlochry vacations are now becoming increasingly popular not only with those who live in the UK, but also with tourists from around the world. Not only does this area of ​​Scotland offer some really stunning scenery but also there are plenty of other things that one can do while staying here.

In this article, we take a look at some of the attractions that you may want to consider visiting during a stay in Pitlochry. Surely, you may find that you need to stay more than a few days in order to enjoy everything that this town and the surrounding area have to offer.

1. Pitlochry Dam – This was built because a power station was needed to provide electricity to the area. When it was built, a new loch was also created and because of this, they had to build a salmon ladder, which allowed the salmon to get upstream, where they would breed.

During your visit to the dam, you are able to see a portion of the ladder that has been enclosed in glass to view just how the salmon make their annual journey to their breeding grounds. This actual exhibition is open from Easter until the last Sunday of October from 10.00 to 17.30 each day.

2. Eradour Distillery – This is the smallest of all Scotland's distilleries and upon your visit will be provided with a wee dram (small glass) of the whiskey that they produce. Tours of the distillery take place regular through the year, but during the winter months (November through to February) there opening hours are different from those in the summer.

3. Killiecrankie Visitor Center – This is to be found outside Pitlochry on the A9 and it is here where you can learn about the Jacobite Rebellion that took place in 1689. It was this rebellion, which was harvested to gain independence for Scotland from England. However, the leader of the rebellion a gentleman called John Graham was killed at the battle, which occurred at Killiecrankie, and this rebellion was defeated by the English troops.

4. Loch Rannoch – This is one of the largest and longest lochs in Scotland and is a short drive away from Pitlochry. This loch is in fact famous as it is actually included in Robert Louis Stevenson's book Kidnapped because he was so impressed with the loch's setting.

Along with the attractions, we have mentioned above when it comes to Pitlochry vacations you will find that there are plenty of other things one can do. Why not spend some time exploring the surrounding countryside. Alternately, if you are feeling a little more adventurous then why not try some water sports which can be found at many of the surrounding lochs.

There are lots of hotels and guest houses in Pitlochry to make your stay a pleasant one. You can then relax and take in the joys of this beautiful part of Scotland.

Shopping for Gifts on a Budget

Holiday shopping is seldom easy. Whether you're just hopping around department stores or just surfing the net, the limitless choices made available by advertisers can actually be more of a detriment for someone who is in a real hurry. This can be quite problematic if you're on a budget and have such a long shopping list. Time constraints do not really provide you the benefit of thoroughly comparing every item in each store in an effort to find yourself the best bargain. One who has been shopping for hours can quite easily succumb to the pressure and end up buying gifts beyond a planned budget.

If you're in this very familiar predicament, all is not lost. When shopping for holiday gifts it sometimes makes more sense to look for items that are simple yet meaningful. While a sophisticated electronic gadget could certainly get a friend excited, simple inexpensive gifts like personalized mugs or engraved pens may just elicit the same amount of appreciation.

Nothing is perhaps more appropriate than a gift that actually captures the holiday spirit. As holidays bring sentimental moments, you'd want to give something you would be remembered for. Embroidered pillows and blankets would be good choices. Collectibles like cd's and personalized caps should also do the trick. Listed below are some gift items worth considering:

• shirt of a home team

• cross stitching kit

• bottle of a local wine

• personalized notepad

• stationary

• photo album

• memo holders

• tool kits

• Carpentry kits

• versatile pocket knife

While you'll certainly be shaved with praises by giving a fancy cellphone or notebook, it sometimes makes more sense to go for something more practical yet thoughtful. You do not really have to dent your budget to please a friend. People tend to get appreciated more for the amount of effort that they've performed in looking for that meaningful gift that touches the heart. Whether it's Christmas, Thanksgiving, or a major school reunion, there's really no reason to panic. All it takes is just a little imagination and a touch of creativity.

For more information on unique gifts and specialty items, please visit

[http://www.levelpromogifts.com].